Calpe Villa for Sale | spanish property Costa Blanca

Calpe Villa for Sale

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Villa Calpe

Calpe Villa for Sale

This pretty calpe villa has a beautiful view to the mountain and the sea. The Villa in Calpe is equiped with a kitchen, spacious living-room, a chimney, dining-room, various terraces, floor heating, air conditioning, safe, pool, garden with palm trees, partially furnished and much more.

For further information on this calpe villa for sale Ref: C4040 visit villas calpe,
or contact immo2sell.

Basque music

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The Basque are an ethnic group living in parts of France and Spain, with the majority in the latter country. They are unrelated to their immediate neighbors, and their origins are unknown. Trikitrixa is the most widespread and well-known form of Basque folk music, though there are also singer-songwriter and choir traditions. Euskadi, or Basque Country, is home to a lively style of folk music called trikitrixa, based on a diatonic accordion. Kepa Junkera and Joseba Tapia are probably the most famous performers of trikitrixa. There has been influences of Tex-Mex artists like Flaco Jiménez.

Other Basque instruments include the alboka, a difficult wind instrument made with horns, the txalaparta wooden beams and the txistu (similar to a tin whistle). There is also a tradition of choral music, like the Orfeón Donostiarra and Mocedades. Basque artists singing in Spanish have a wider market sometimes reaching Spanish America, examples are Luis Mariano, La oreja de Van Gogh and Duncan Dhu. Other Basque artists singinn in Basque include Oskorri, Benito Lertxundi, Fermin Muguruza and Azala.

Spanish Villa for Sale

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Villa in Spain

Villa in Spain

This spanish villa in Altea has not only a beautiful seaview over the Costa Blanca but the mountains too. The property surface is 1395 m² and the construction surface 350 m². Extras for this villa in Altea include a chimney, spacious rooms, BBQ, pool and much more.

For further information on this calpe luxury villa Ref:C4020 visit luxury villas calpe,
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Battle of Manila Bay

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The Battle of Manila Bay took place on May 1, 1898 during the Spanish-American War. The American Pacific Squadron under Commodore George Dewey engaged the Spanish Pacific Squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo and destroyed the Spanish squadron. The engagement took place in Manila Bay, the Philippines, and was the first major engagement of the Spanish-American War. Montojo, who had been dispatched rapidly to the Philippines, was equipped with a variety of obsolete vessels.

Efforts to fortify his position amounted to nothing when the incredibly corrupt Spanish colonial bureaucracy sent explosives meant for mines to friendly construction companies, guns were stripped from fortresses and left laying on the beach for weeks, and reinforcements promised from Madrid resulted in only two poorly armored Scout Cruisers. Montojo compounded his difficulties by retreating from the range of Spanish fortress guns - guns that might have evened the odds - and chose to anchor in a relatively shallow anchorage.

His intent seems to have been to preserve the families of the Spanish sailors in Manila from bombardment, and to allow survivors of his fleet to swim to safety. On May 1, George Dewey aboard USS Olympia and leading a small squadron of warships entered Manila Bay. With the now famous “You may fire when ready, Gridley..” Olympia’s captain was instructed to begin the barrage that resulted in the destruction of Spain’s fleet. Most of the Spanish ships were either destroyed or surrendered.

The Spanish fleet fought back with great ferocity, but many crews were caught unaware - painting their vessels, at Mass, or doing other decidedly non-gunnery related tasks. The results were decisive. A Spanish attempt to attack Dewey with Camara’s Flying Relief Column came to naught, and the naval war in the Philippines devolved into a series of torpedo boat hit-and-run attacks for the rest of the campaign.

Calpe Property

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Properties Calpe

Properties Calpe

This calpe property has a lot of potential, because this villa in calpe will be sold with the neighbours plot. The second property can be used as an additional garden or one can build a seperate villa for guests and lettings.

For further information on this calpe luxury villa Ref:C3910 visit luxury villas calpe,
or contact immo2sell.

Balearic Islands

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The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears Catalan official name, Islas Baleares in Spanish) are an archipelago in the western Mediterranean Sea, forming an autonomous community of Spain. The capital of the autonomous community is Palma de Mallorca. The autonomous community consists of one province. The official languages are Catalan and Spanish. The Catalan name Illes Balears is used by the Spanish government.

The main islands are Majorca (Mallorca), Minorca (Menorca), Ibiza (Eivissa), and Formentera, all popular tourist destinations. Minor islands include Cabrera, the location of the Parque Nacional del Archipiélago de Cabrera. Strictly speaking, Majorca and Minorca are the Balearic Islands proper, with Ibiza and Formentera being the Illes Pitiüses; but both groups are usually referred to as the Balearic Islands.

Luxury Villa Altea

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Altea Villa

Altea Villa

This fairy-tail Altea villa has been planed over several month with different ideas from US-buildings. Several architects visited different spanish villas and took only the best ideas to build this dream come true of a spanish property. All the details have been finished in the very best quality and to perfection. Extras include things like central air condition, bar, infinity pool, whirlpool, sauna, fitness room, separate guesthouse and much more.

For further information on this spanish luxury villa Ref:C3880 visit spain luxury villas,
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Spanish-American War

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Background

For many centuries Spain’s position as a world power had been slipping away. By the late nineteenth century the nation was left only a few scattered possessions in the Pacific, Africa, and the West Indies. Much of the empire had gained its independence and a number of the areas still under Spanish control were clamoring to do so. Guerrilla forces were operating in the Philippines, and had, for decades, been present in Cuba. The Spanish government did not have the financial or the manpower resources to deal with these revolts and thus turned to expedients of building camps to separate the rebels from their rural base of support.

The Spaniards also carried out many executions of suspected rebels and harshly treated villages and individuals thought to be supporting them. By the end of the 1890s the rebels had mostly been defeated and Cuba was returning to a relative peace. In the long run, however, Spain’s position was completely untenable. These events in Cuba coincided in the 1890s with a struggle for readership between the American newspaper chains of Hearst and Pulitzer. One of the most popular features were tales of great atrocities (some based on fact, some not) which the ‘cruel Spanish masters’ were inflicting on the ‘hapless native Cubans’ (see: Black Legend). Cuban. Sections of the American people began pushing for intervention.

There were other pressures pushing towards war. The US navy had recently grown considerably, but it was still untested. The Navy had drawn up plans for attacking the Spanish in the Philippines over a year before hostilities broke out. The end of western expansion and of large-scale conflict with the First Nations also left the army with little to do, and army leadership hoped that some new task would come. From an early date many in the US had felt that Cuba was rightly theirs. The theory of manifest destiny made the island just off the coast of Florida seem very attractive. Much of the island’s economy was already in American hands, and most of its trade, much of which was black market, was with the US. Some business leaders pushed for conflict as well.

In the words of Senator Thurston of Nebraska: “War with Spain would increase the business and earnings of every American railroad, it would increase the output of every American factory, it would stimulate every branch of industry and domestic commerce.” In Spain the government was not entirely averse to war. The US was an unproven power. The Spanish navy, however decrepit, had a glorious history and it was thought it could be a match for the US. There was also a widely held notion among Spain’s aristocratic leaders that the United States’ ethnically mixed army and navy could never survive under severe pressure.

Villas in Spain

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Spain Villas

Spain Villas

This cosy and very private spanish villa near Calpe is situated on a nearly total flat property with sun all day. The extras for this spanish villa in calpe include heated whirlpool in the garden, fishpond, separate guestapartment with its own entrance door and much more.

For further information on this spanish villa Ref:C3770 visit spain villas,
or contact immo2sell.

San Fermín

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The festival of San Fermin is deeply rooted celebration held annually from 6 July to 14 July in the city of Pamplona in north-eastern Spain. While its most notorious event is “the running of the bulls” (the encierro), the weeklong celebration involves numerous other traditional and folkloric events. It is known locally as Sanfermines and is in honor of Saint Fermin, the patron saint of Pamplona; its events were immortalised by Ernest Hemingway in his book Fiesta. It has become the most internationally renowned fiesta in Spain. The festival’s origins are not clear. When certain relics of the saint were brought back to Pamplona in 1196, the city decided to mark the occasion with an annual event. Over the centuries, the saint’s festival, the ancient annual fair and the running of the bulls and subserquent bullfights have all melded together.

Archives document the bull runs only as far back as the late fourteenth century, but even if one does not know that the bull is a sacred animal in the Mediterranean world, or is unaware of the bull-dancers in Minoan frescos, an unprejudiced outsider still may detect the remnants of an ancient pre-Christian ritual. At Pamplona the martyrdom of Saint Fermin who was martyred at Amiens, is now sometimes said to have met his end by being dragged through the streets of Pamplona by bulls. Up to the 15th century, the festival was held on Saint Fermin’s feast day, September 25. The Pamplona fiesta was transferred to July in 1591.

The Encierro involves running in front of bulls down an 825-metre stretch of cobbled streets of a section of the old town of Pamplona. The biggest day is 7 July, when people in their thousands accompany the effigy of Saint Fermin along the streets of Pamplona, accompanied dancing and street entertainers, such as carnival giants. Each morning’s event starts at 8 A.M. Competitors are clad in white, with a red handkerchief tied about their necks. The racers gather in an area beneath a church, where they sing three times an ode to Saint Fermin:

A San Fermín pedimos, por ser nuestro patrón, nos guíe en el encierro dándonos su bendición. ("We ask San Fermín, as our Patron, to guide us through the Bull Run and give us his blessing.")
Anyone who survives a close encounter with a panicky bull is said to have been protected by San Fermin’s cloak. The fiesta begins with the letting off of a rocket, an event known as the “Chupinazo”. A firecracker announces the release of the bulls from their corral, and a second firecracker advises that the last bull has left the corral.

The event is dangerous. Since 1924, 14 people have been killed (the most recent, a 22-year-old American in 1995), and 200 have been injured. Most injuries nowadays, however, are caused by the stampede of participants seeking to run from the powerful bulls. The organisers release multi-lingual guides (with safety tips) to running the event: it is strongly recommended that this be read beforehand. It must be said that in more recent years, beginning with the publication of Ernest Hemingway’s novel in 1926 about the event called The Sun Also Rises, a large percentage of runners are tourists. Tourists have made the event much more dangerous due to them lacking the understanding and skill needed to run safely in the Encierro.

Stray bulls become extremely agitated (they are herd animals who do not like to be separated from the pack), and so the organisers arrange for a “second wave” of calmer and older steers to run through the streets after the “first wave,” on order to collect any stragglers. The shops and residences along the course are boarded up to prevent damage by either bull or human during the race. One particular stretch of the course, called Mercaderes, is particularly notorious for injuries: on rainy days the bulls cannot turn well on the cobblestones, and often collide into the wall; Tear marks from the sharpened horns against the pulp wood barriers give an indication as to the events of days before. While locals are always keen to avoid this corner, it is not uncommon to see tourists getting trampled and serioulsy injured there.

The course concludes at Pamplona’s Plaza de Toros (bullfighting stadium), and the bulls are herded inside the Corralillos to participate in the afternoon’s Corrida. The participants of the Encierro are left in the stadium, and smaller bulls (with wrapped horns) are released into the arena and toss the participants, to the general amusement of the crowd. Once all of the bulls have entered the stadium a third rocket is released while a fourth firecracker indicates that the bulls are in their bullpens and the run has concluded. During the days, the town has a carnival with rides and ferris wheels, as well as an abundance of sangria sold by bars and restaurants.

At night, the town erupts into an enormous party, and the thousands of tourists find themselves asleep in parks. The Comparsa de Gigantes (Company of Giants) parade the streets— enormous puppets accompanied by brass bands. The streets are filled with drunken revellers. The city hall is offered by the town as a storage facility for backpackers’ gear. After nine days of partying, the people of Pamplona meet in the Plaza Consistorial at midnight on July 14, singing the traditional mournful notes of the “Pobre de Mí” (’Poor Me’), in a magical, candlelit ending Nowadays on the 15th of the month, after the fiesta is over, some diehards assemble once more at 7 a.m. and run one last time, pursued this last time by the early-morning commuter bus.

Villas in Spain

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Spain Villas

Spain Villas

A wonderful new built luxury villa in spain with a never ending seaviews and with one of the most luxurious pools you can get. The spain villa consists of two separate apartments. Each apartment has two spacious bedrooms, a very large living-diningroom with an american kitchen, a complete bathroom and a bathroom with shower. If you buy the spain villa at it is at the moment it costs 720.000 Euros and finished 755.000 Euros.

For further information on this spain villas Ref: C3700 visit villas in spain,
or contact immo2sell.

Spanish-American War

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The Start of the War

On February 15, 1898 the American battleship USS Maine in Havana harbor suffered an explosion and quickly sunk with a loss of 260 men. Evidence as to the cause of the explosion was inconclusive and contradictory, but the American press, led by the two New York papers, proclaimed that this was certainly a despicable act of sabotage by the Spaniards. The press aroused the public to demand war, with the slogan “Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!".

(Expert opinion is still divided; most now consider an accidental explosion of coal fuel to be as likely a reason as any for the ship’s fate. Modern analytical tools, especially computer simulations, have all but confirmed this. Few still think a mine could have been the cause. Some believe it could well have been sabotage, but by Cuban revolutionaries who hoped to draw the US into the war. Almost all agree the Spaniards would have no interest in provoking a war.)

US President William McKinley was not inclined towards war, and had long held out against intervention, but the Maine explosion so forcefully shaped public opinion that he had to agree. Spanish minister Práxedes Mateo Sagasta did much to try to prevent this, including withdrawing the officials in Cuba against whom complaints had been made, and offering the Cubans autonomy. This was well short of full independence for Cuba, however and would do little to change the status quo.

Thus On April 11 McKinley went before Congress to ask for authority to send American troops to Cuba for the purpose of ending the civil war there. On April 19 Congress passed joint resolutions proclaiming Cuba “free and independent", demanded Spanish withdrawal, and authorized the President to use such military force as he thought necessary. In response Spain broke off diplomatic relations with the United States. On April 25 US Congress declared that a state of war between the United States and Spain had existed since April 21st (Congress later passed a resolution backdating the declaration of war to April 20th).

Spanish Property for Sale

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Villa in Spain

Villa in Spain

A very quality property in spain in the typical one floor andalusian style. The villa in La Nucia is close to shops and a supermarket. Extras include winter garden, automatic irrigation system, waterdeposit of 1500L, utilityroom, a lot of storage, wine cellar, and of course a very quality construction!

For further information on this spanish property Ref: C3670 visit villas in spain,
or contact immo2sell.

Gazpacho Soup

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Gazpacho Soup also known as Gazpacho is a cold tomato-based Spanish soup that is popular in warmer areas and during the summer. It is usually spicy but a milder variant has also become popular.

Ingredients
1 lb /450 g tomatoes
1/2 lb / 225 g green peppers
1/2 cucumber
clove of garlic
a few coriander leaves (cilantro)
1/4 chilli pepper, seeds removed (optional, leave out if you want a milder soup)
2 oz / 50 g white bread, 2-3 days old (also optional, leave out for a thinner soup)
1/2 mild Spanish onion

1 tbsp balsamic vinegar
2 tbsp olive oil
1/3 pt iced water
Sea salt and black pepper
Ice cubes

To Garnish:
2 tomatoes, skinned
1/2 green pepper
1/4 peeled cucumber
2 slices stale white bread, crusts removed

Method
Skin the tomatoes and cut into quarters. Remove seeds and stalks from peppers (obviously!). Peel the cucumber and cut into chunks. Tear up the bread and soak it in water for 30 minutes and then squeeze it dry. Cut up the onion.

Blend all the ingredients until roughly chopped, not too fine, because the soup should have texture and discernible vegetable bits. Pour into large bowl with some ice, add salt and pepper. Then prepare the garnishes. Dice the bread and fry it in a little olive oil until brown. Chop the other vegetables finely. Serve in separate little bowls on the table, so that guests can sprinkle on their own toppings.

Serve chilled, preferably on a hot day and within sight of the sea.

Luxury Villa Altea

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Spanish Property for Sale

Spanish Property for Sale

This lovely luxury villa in Altea has a incredible view over the Costa Blanca. The villa in altea has a property surface of 1445 m² and a construction surface of 420 m². Extras include alarmsystem, safetyglass, pool, garage and much more.

For further information on this altea property Ref: C3650 visit villa in altea,
or contact immo2sell.

Maria Christina of Bourbon

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Maria Christina, Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Queen of Spain (Maria Cristina Ferdinanda of the Two Sicilies branch of the Royal House of Bourbon) (April 27, 1806 to August 22, 1878) was Queen Consort of Spain (1829 to 1833) and Queen Regent of Spain (1833 to 1840). Maria Christina was the fourth wife of King Ferdinand VII of Spain (Fernando in Spanish)(1783-1833, king 1813-1833) and mother of and regent for Queen Isabella II of Spain (Isabel in Spanish)(1830-1904, queen 1833-1868). Originally titled Her Royal Highness, Princess Maria Christina of Naples and Sicily, on December 18, 1816 her title was changed to Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies when her father changed the name of his kingdom. Her Spanish name was Maria Cristina de Borbón-Dos Sicilias.

Born in Palermo, Sicily, Italy on April 27, 1806, she was the daughter of King Francis I (In Italian, Francesco I) of the Two Sicilies by his second wife, Infanta Doña Maria Isabel of Spain. She married King Ferdinand VII of Spain on December 11, 1829 in Madrid. Ferdinand was her uncle by birth and by marriage. Like her mother Maria Isabel, Ferdinand was a child of King Charles IV of Spain (Carlos IV in Spanish) and his wife, Princess Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Parma. Further, Ferdinand’s first wife Princess Maria Antonietta of Naples and Sicily (1784-1806) was the sister of Maria Christina’s father, King Francis. After Maria Antonietta’s death, Ferdinand married Infanta Doña Isabel of Portugal (1787-1819).

When Isabel died he married Princess Josepha of Saxony (1803-1829). Of these three marriages, only that to Isabel resulted in a live child. Queen Isabel’s daugther, the Infanta Doña María Luísa Isabel, died on January 9, 1818 at the age of four months. With Queen Josepha’s death on May 27, 1829, Ferdinand’s was desperation to father an heir for his crown resulted in his fourth marriage just seven months later. The new queen, Maria Christina, rapidly gave birth to two daughters, Isabella (the future Queen Isabella and the Infanta Doña María Luísa Fernanda (1832-1897). When Ferdinand died on September 29, 1833, Maria Christina became regent for their daughter Isabella. Isabella’s claim to the thrown was disputed by her uncle, the Infante Don Carlos María Isidro Benito, Count de Molina, who claimed that Ferdinand had unlawfully changed the succession law to permit females to inherit the crown. Some supporters of Carlos went so far as to claim that Ferdinand had actually bequeathed the crown to his brother but that Maria Christina had suppressed that fact. It was further alleged that the Queen had signed her dead husband’s name to a decree recognizing Isabella as heir.

Carlos’ attempt to seize power resulted in the Carlist Wars. Despite considerable support for Carlos from the Roman Catholic Church and conservative elements in Spain, Maria Christina successfully retained the throne for her daughter. The Carlist Wars grew from a dispute about the succession into a dispute over the future of Spain. The supporters of Maria Christina and her daughter favored a liberal constitution and progressive social policies. In contrast, Carlos’ supporters (called Carlists) favored a return to traditional society and an absolute monarchy. Ultimately, the army’s loyalty to Isabella II proved the decisive issue in the war.

On December 28, 1833, shortly after the death of Ferdinand VII, Maria Christina secretly married an ex-sergeant from the royal guard, Don Fernando Muñoz y Sanchez (1808 to 1873). Muñoz was given the title Duke of Riansares. Maria Christina and Muñoz had several children together while trying to keep their marriage a secret. Eventually, news of Maria Christina’s marriage to low-ranking soldier became public. That news made Maria Christina deeply unpopular. The Regent’s position was undermined by news of her remarriage and concerns that Maria Christina was not actually supportive her liberal ministers and their policies. Eventually, the army, which was the backbone of Isabella II’s support, and the liberal leadership in the Cortes combined to demand that Maria Christina stand aside from the regency. In 1840, the army commander, General Baldomero Esparto, replaced her as regent.

The new government required the ex-regent to leave Spain. After an unsuccessful attempt to return to power, Maria Christina retired permanently to exile in France after 1844. France remained her primary residence for the remainder of her life. A Revolution forced Isabella II from her throne on September 30, 1868 and she joined her mother in exile in France. Isabella II renounced the throne in favor of her son, Alfonso XII on June 25th, 1870. Supporters of Alfonso XII made it clear that neither his mother nor grandmother could play an active role in the effort to restore the monarchy. When Alfonso XII regained the Spanish crown on December 29th, 1874, Maria Christina and Isabella II were permitted to return to Spain as visitors but denied permission to live there permanently. Neither was allowed to exercise influence in the Spanish government.

The marriage to Muñoz and the events of Maria Christina’s turbulent regency drove a permanent wedge between her and her Spanish Royal offspring. Neither Isabella II nor Alphonso XII had much interest in a relationship with the former Queen Regent. Maria Christina died in Le Havre, France on August 22nd, 1878. As the widow of Ferdinand VII and the mother of Isabella II, Maria Christina was buried in the royal crypt of the El Escorial monastery (El Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial, The Royal Moneastery of Saint Lawrence of Escorial). Burial in the royal crypt is a privilege reserved to Spanish sovereigns and such of their spouses who were actually the parents of future sovereigns. Ferdinand VII’s first three wives had to be buried in less exalted parts of the Escorial or other churches.

Property in Altea

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Property Spain

Property Spain

This luxury villa in Altea with a rustic touch will be finished in the beginning of February 2004. There is a room at the villa of aproximately 70sqm that could be built up for a guest apartement, exclusive pool and preinstallation for an aircondition.

For further information on this altea villa Ref: C3640 visit property in altea,
or contact immo2sell.

Gran Canaria

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Gran Canaria is one of the Canary Islands, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 210 km from the northwest coast of Africa and belonging to Spain. The island is of volcanic origin. The island was populated by the Guanches from 3000 BC, who called it Tamarán, but was claimed by Spain in the 15th century. Gran Canaria’s surface is 1560 km2 and its maximum altitude is 1949 meters (Pozo de las nieves). It has a round shape, having a diameter of just about 50 Km. It is divided into twenty-one municipalities:

The island has a population of 755,500 with 365,000 of those in the capital city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is also the capital of the province of Las Palmas, and also one of the co-capitals of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands. The market in the fishing city of Arguineguin (in the municipality of Mogán) is the largest on the island, and is on Tuesdays.

The number of annual visitors are 2.2 million (2,200,000). This island is called a “Miniature Continent” due to the different climates and variety of landscapes found. Most tourists stay in the south of the island, which is sunnier and has less rain than the north. There is a large bird park, Palmitos Park, in the south of the island.

Spanish Villa for Sale

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Calpe Property

Calpe Property

This brand new Calpe Villa built from a german constructor was finished in November 2003. It has a view to the mountains and the sea of the Costa Blanca. A property surface of 1000 m² and a construction surface of 218 m². Extras include terrace, pool, garage, waterdeposit, designer kitchen and a wardrobe with special sizes.

For further information on this calpe villa Ref: C3630 visit property in spain,
or contact immo2sell.

Tomás de Zumalacárregui

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Tomás de Zumalacárregui (1788-1835), Spanish Carlist general, was born at Ormaiztegi in Gipuzkoa on the 29 December 1788. His father, Francisco Antonio Zumalacárregui, was a lawyer who possessed some property, and the son was articled to a solicitor. When the French invasion of Spain took place in 1808 he enlisted at Zaragoza. He served in the first siege, at the battle of Tudela, and during the second siege until he was taken prisoner in a sortie. He succeeded in escaping and in reaching his family in Navarre. For a short time he served with Caspar de Jauregui, known as “The Shepherd” (El Pastor), one of the minor guerrillero leaders.

But Zumalacarregui, who was noted for his grave and silent disposition and his strong religious principles, disliked the disorderly life of the guerrillas, and when regular forces were organized in the north he entered the 1st battalion of Guipuzcoa as an officer. During the remainder of the war he served in the regular army. In 1812 he was sent with despatches to the Regency at Cadiz, and received his commission as captain. In that rank he was present at the battle of San Marcial foist of August 1813. After the restoration of Ferdinand VII he continued in the army, and is said to have made a careful study of the theory of war. Zumalacarregui had no sympathy with the liberal principles which were spreading in Spain, and became noted as what was called a Servil or strong Royalist.

He attracted no attention at headquarters, and was still a captain when the Revolution of 1820 broke out. His brother officers, whose leanings were liberal, denounced him to the revolutionary government, and asked that he might be removed. The recommendation was not acted on, but Zumalacárregui knew of it, and laid up the offence in his mind. Finding that he was suspected (probably with truth) of an intention to bring the soldiers over to the royalist side, he escaped to France. In 1823 he returned as an officer in one of the royalist regiments which had been organized on French soil by the consent of the government. He was now known as a thoroughly trustworthy servant of the despotic royalty, but he was too proud to be a courtier. For some years he was employed in bringing regiments which the government distrusted to order.

He became lieutenant-colonel in 1825 and colonel in 1829. In 1832 he was named military governor of Ferrol. Before Ferdinand VII died in 1833, Zumalacárregui was marked out as a natural supporter of the absolutist party which favoured the king’s brother, Don Carlos. The proclamation of the king’s daughter Isabella as heiress was almost the occasion of an armed conflict between him and the naval authorities at Ferrol, who were partisans of the constitutional cause. He was put on half pay by the new authorities and ordered to live under police observation at Pamplona. When the Carlist rising began on the death of Ferdinand VII, he is said to have held back because he knew that the first leaders would be politicians and talkers. He did not take the field till the Carlist cause appeared to be at a very low ebb, and until he had received a commission from Don Carlos as commander-in-chief in Navarre.

The whole force under his orders when he escaped from Pamplona on the night of the 29th of October 1833, and took the command next day in the Val de Araquil, was a few hundred ill-armed and dispirited guerrilleros. In a few months Zumalacarregui had organized the Carlist forces into a regular army. The difficulty he found in obtaining supplies was very great, for the coast towns ?and notably Bilbao ? were constitutional in politics. It was mainly by captures from the government troops that he equipped his forces. He gradually obtained full possession of Navarre and the Basque provinces, outside of the fortresses, which he had not the means to besiege.

Whether as a guerrillero leader, or as a general conducting regular war in the mountains, he proved unconquerable. By July 1834 he had made it safe for Don Carlos to join his headquarters. The pretender was, however, a narrow-minded, bigoted man, who regarded Zumalacárregui with suspicion, and was afraid of his immense personal influence with the soldiers. Zumalacárregui had therefore to drag behind him the whole weight of the distrust and intrigues of the court. Yet by the beginning of June 1835 he had made the Carlist cause triumphant to the north of the Ebro, and had formed an army of more than 30,000 men, of much better quality than the constitutional forces.

If Zumalacárregui had been allowed to follow his own plans, which were to concentrate his forces and march on Madrid, he might well have put Don Carlos in possession of the capital. But the court was eager to obtain command of a seaport, and Zumalacárregui was ordered to besiege Bilbao. He obeyed reluctantly, and on the 14th of June 1835 was wounded by a musket bullet in the calf of the leg. The wound was trifling and would probably have been cured with ease if he had been allowed to employ an English doctor whom he trusted. But Don Carlos insisted on sending his own physicians, and in their hands the general died on 24 June 1835 ? not without suspicion of poison.

Zumalacarregui was a fine type of the old royalist and religious principles of his people. The ferocity with which he conducted the war was forced on him by the government generals, who refused quarter. An engaging account of Zumalacárregui will be found in “The Most Striking Events of a Twelvemonth Campaign with Zumalacarregui in Navarre and the Basque Provinces", by C. F. Henningsen (London, 1836). A chap-book called “Vida política y militar de Don Tomás Zumalacárregui", which gives the facts of his life with fair accuracy, is still very popular in Spain.

Some modern Basque nationalists believe that Zumalacárregui (or Zumalakarregi) was a precursor of their movement and that his opinions were more of Basque independence than Don Carlos’s pretensions.

Calpe Properties

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Villa Calpe

Villa Calpe

This beautifull, complete renovated 210 sqm big Calpe villa is situated in a quiet urbanisation near shops and beach with perfect seaviews and a flat plot. The calpe property is divided in two individual guest apartments which also could be rented out.

For further information on this calpe villas Ref: C3600 visit properties in spain,
or contact immo2sell.

Madrid

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Madrid is the capital of Spain. Built on the site of a Moorish fort called Magerit, Philip II of Spain chose it to replace Valladolid as the capital in 1561. (The capital returned to Valladolid during 1600-1606.) Due to this status, it grew into a flourishing city. Today it is culturally rivalled only by Barcelona. Madrid is the capital not only of the country but also of the province and autonomía of Madrid.

Important cultural and tourist spots include the famous Prado Museum, the Thyssen Bornemisza Museum, the Centro de Arte Reina Sofia (where Pablo Picasso’s Guernica hangs), the Casón del Buen Retiro, the Palacio Real, the Templo de Debod, the Monasterio de las Descalzas Reales, the Puerta del Sol, the Parque de Retiro, and the gay village of Chueca. Other nearby towns are popular as day trips from Madrid, including Toledo, Segovia, Avila, Aranjuez, Alcalá de Henares, the monastery and palace complex of El Escorial, and the Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos.

Madrid is particularly noted for its nightlife and discotheques; it’s not uncommon for madrileños to dance all night, head to the Chocolateria San Ginés for chocolate y churros at dawn, go home, shower, shave, and go to work. This nightlife, called la movida, flourished after the death of Franco. Madrid is served by Barajas International Airport. Despite the city’s population of some four million (the Madrilenians or madrileños), the Madrid metro is one of the most extensive and fastest-growing metro networks in the world.

Property Spain

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Spanish Villa for Sale

Spanish Villa for Sale

This luxury villa in spain has a beautiful view to the mountains and the sea of the costa blanca. Extras include a fishpond in the house and in the garden, electric roller blinds, alarm-system, electric entrance gate, automatic irrigation system, two water deposits (35.000 and 20.000 L), safety glass, security doors and much more.

For further information on this calpe villas Ref: C3590 visit properties in spain,
or contact immo2sell.

Francisco Franco

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Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde, and better known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was head of state of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. Known as “el Caudillo” ("the leader"), he presided over the authoritarian government of the Spanish State, which had overthrown the Second Spanish Republic.

General Franco Born in El Ferrol (officially known as El Ferrol del Caudillo from 1938 to 1982), Spain, Franco graduated from the military academy in Toledo. His brother Ramón Franco was a pioneer airman (see Plus Ultra). Due to his performance in the Morocco war, at the age of 23 King Alfonso XIII appointed him the youngest major in the Spanish army. He was made a general in 1926, the youngest in a European army, and from 1933 onward he was Commander in Chief of the Spanish Army. Note that he was not a four-star general, as in Spanish tradition only the King of Spain is a four-star “captain general.”

Suspected of plotting against the leftist Government of the Second Spanish Republic, he was sent to the Canary Islands. Fulfilling the suspicions, on July 17, 1936, he flew to Spanish Morocco where he led the Spanish troops in Northern Africa in an insurgency against the Republic. Thus began the Spanish Civil War. During the war, on October 1, 1936, he was elected “Jefe del Estado” (Head of State) and “Generalísimo” of the Nationalist army, with rank of lieutenant general. He also managed to fuse the Falange ("phalanx,” a far-right Spanish political party) and the Carlist parties under his rule. His army was supported by troops from Nazi Germany (Legion Kondor) and Fascist Italy (Corpo Truppe Volontari). The war ended with his conquest of Madrid on March 28, 1939, and Franco continued to rule as dictator of Spain until his death in 1975.

Following the war, Franco was faced with an embittered and impoverished nation. Meanwhile, in Europe, World War II broke out, and although Adolf Hitler sought Spain’s participation during a personal interview in Hendaye, France (23 October 1940), Franco’s demands (Gibraltar, French North Africa, e.g.) proved unacceptable, and Spain remained officially neutral during the war. It is the subject of some debate whether Franco’s behavior was a diplomatic way of refusing or a miscalculation. Nonetheless, Franco sent troops (División Azul, or “Blue Division") to fight on the Eastern Front against the Soviet Union. They were “volunteers"; some were crusaders against Communism and some went just for the pay or to clear former liaisons with the Republic. Franco also offered facilities to German ships.

With the end of World War II, Franco and Spain were forced to suffer the economic consequences of the isolation imposed on it by nations such as Great Britain and the United States. This situation ended in part when, due to Spain’s strategic location in light of Cold War tensions, the United States entered into a trade and military alliance with Spain. This historic alliance commenced with U.S. President Eisenhower’s visit in 1953. This launched the so-called “Spanish Miracle,” which developed Spain from autarchy into capitalism. Spain was admited in the United Nations in 1955. In spite of this opening, Franco almost never left Spain once in power.

In 1947 Franco proclaimed Spain a monarchy, but ironically did not designate a monarch. In 1969 he designated Prince Juan Carlos de Borbón with the new title of Prince of Spain as his successor. This came as a surprise for the Carlist pretender to the throne, as well as for Juan Carlos’s father, Don Juan, the Count of Barcelona, who technically had a superior right to the throne. By 1973 Franco had given up the function of Prime Minister (Presidente del Gobierno), remaining only as head of the country and as commander in chief of the military forces.

Lacking any strong ideology, Franco initially sought support from National Syndicalism (nacionalsindicalismo) and the Catholic Church (nacionalcatolicismo). His coalition ruling single party, the Movimiento Nacional, was so heterogeneous as to barely qualify as a party at all, and certainly not an ideological monolith like the Fascio di Combattimento (Fascist Party) and the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nazi Party). His Spanish State was chiefly a conservative - even traditionalist - rightist regime, with emphasis on order and stability, rather than a definite political vision.

Although a monarchist, Franco had no particular desire for a king. As such, he left the throne vacant, with himself as de facto un-crowned king. He wore the uniform of a captain general (a rank traditionally reserved for the King), resided in the Pardo Palace, and appropriated the kingly privilege of walking beneath a canopy. Indeed, although his formal titles were Jefe del Estado (Chief of State) and Generalísimo de los Ejércitos Españoles (Highest General of the Spanish Armed Forces), his personal title was por la gracia de Dios, Caudillo de España y de la Cruzada, or “by the grace of God, Caudillo of Spain and of the Crusade” ("by the grace of God” is a technical, legal phrase which indicates sovereign dignity, and is only used by monarchs).

During his rule non-Government trade unions and all political opponents (right across the spectrum, from communist and anarchist organizations to liberal democrats and nationalists, especially Basque and Catalan nationalists), were suppressed. In every town there was a constant presence of Guardia Civil, a para-militiary police force, who patrolled in pairs with submachine guns, and functioned as his chief means of control. A Freemasonry conspiracy was a constant obsession for him. In popular imagination, he is often remembered as in the black and white images of No-Do newsreels, inaugurating a reservoir, or catching enormous fishes from the Azor yacht during his holidays.

He died on 20 November, 1975 on the same date as José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the Falange. It is suspected that the doctors were ordered to keep him barely alive by artificial means until that symbolic date. Franco is buried at Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos, a site he had built as the tomb of el Ausente. Since his death, almost all the placenames named after him (most Spanish towns had a calle del Generalísimo) have been changed.

Property Calpe

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Calpe Villa

Calpe Villa

This beautiful villa in calpe is a dream come true, and extremly well built. The spanish property has views not only to the sea but also to the mountains of the Costa Blanca. The property surface is 966 m² and construction surface 200 m². Extras include a heated pool, completely furnished, security windows and much much more.

For further information on this calpe villa Ref: C3560 visit properties in calpe,
or contact immo2sell.

The dictatorship of Franco

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Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II, but suffered through a devastating Civil War (1936-39). During Franco’s rule, Spain remained largely economically and culturally isolated from the outside world, but slowly began to catch up economically with its European neighbors.
Under Franco, Spain actively sought the return of Gibraltar by the UK, and gained some support for its cause at the United Nations.

During the 1960s, Spain began imposing restrictions on Gibraltar, culminating in the closure of the border in 1969. It was not fully reopened until 1985. Spain also relinquished its colonies in Africa, with Spanish rule in Morocco ending in 1956. Spanish Guinea was granted independence as Equatorial Guinea in 1968, while the Moroccan enclave of Ifni had been ceded to Morocco in 1969. The latter years of Franco’s rule saw some economic and political liberalisation, the so called Spanish Miracle, including the birth of a tourism industry.

Francisco Franco ruled until his death on November 20th 1975 when control was given to King Juan Carlos. In the last few months before Franco’s death, the Spanish state went into a paralysis. This was capitalized upon by King Hassan of Morocco, who ordered the ‘Green March’ into Western Sahara, Spain’s last colonial possession.

Costa Blanca Property

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Villa Costa Blanca

Villa Costa Blanca

This amazing spanish villa at the Costa Blanca is a real stunner. The spanish villa is only a short hundred meters away from the sea. The view is just breathtaking. The property is 828 m² big with a construction surface of 355 m². Extras include pool, terrace, garage, store room, garage, air conditionig and much more.

For further information on this costa blanca villa Ref: C3510 visit properties in spain,
or contact immo2sell.

La Rioja

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La Rioja is a province and autonomous community of northern Spain. Its capital is Logroño. Other cities and towns are Calahorra, Arnedo, Haro, San Asensio, Navalsaz, and Najera. See List of municipalities in La Rioja.

It is bordered by the Basque Country (province of Álava), Navarre, Aragon (province of Zaragoza), and Castile-Leon (provinces of Soria and Burgos). The Río Ebro flows through this region, as does the Río Oja, for which it is known. The territory of La Rioja (formerly known as the province of Logroño) was disputed between the kings of Navarre and the kings of Castile starting in the 10th century; the region was annexed to Castile in 1173.

It was made into an autonomous community during the reorganization following the democratic transition, owing to its economic distinction from the surrounding regions. It is the second-smallest autonomous community in Spain and has the smallest population; fully half of its 174 municipalities have populations under 200. Nearly half of its citizens live in the capital. It is best known for its production of the well-known Rioja wines.

Property Altea

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Altea Villa

Altea Villa

This completely renovated villa in Altea is not only a very nice property in spain, but also has a special location on a nearly flat plot. The very quality construction of the Altea Villa and the incredible view overlooking the costa blanca are only some aspects of that spanish property.

For further information on this altea villa Ref: C3450 visit properties altea,
or contact immo2sell.

Second Spanish Republic

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The Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) was the second period in Spanish history in which the election of both the positions of Head of State and Head of government were in the hands of the people. (The First Spanish Republic was from 1873–1874.) The Second Republic began on April 14, 1931 after the abdication of King Alfonso XIII, following local election in which Republican candidates won the urban vote. The first president was Niceto Alcalá Zamora (1931–1936).

The Basques and the Catalans claimed independence but didn’t immediately get the autonomy they wanted. The Straperlo scandal undermined the confidence in centrist republican parties and led to polarization. The second president was Manuel Azaña (1936–1939). The Republic suffered a terrible crisis when General Franco attempted a coup on July 18, 1936, which was the start of the Spanish Civil War.

The Republic began to fall out of favor with some nations but received aid from others, such as Stalin’s USSR. Azaña’s government lasted until February, 1939. The Republic fell when General Franco and his troops took Madrid on April 1, 1939. A dictatorship (Franquismo) was established which lasted until Franco’s death in 1975.

Villa Calpe

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Spanish Property for Sale

Spanish Property for Sale

This detached spanish villa with fincaflair in Calpe has a beautiful view to the mountains. The villa in spain include a utility room, a waterdeposit with 15.000L, a whirlpool and much much more…

For further information on this spanish villa Ref: C3400 visit properties costablanca,
or contact immo2sell.

Ceuta

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Ceuta is a Spanish exclave in North Africa, surrounded by Morocco, on the Mediterranean coast near the Straits of Gibraltar. It is known in Arabic and French as Sebta. Its area is approximately 28 km2. Ceuta over the centuries was subject successively to Carthaginian, Roman, Visigothic and Arab domination, until it was captured by the Portuguese on August 14, 1415.


Portugal yielded Ceuta to Spain on January 1, 1668, at the signing of a peace treaty at Lisbon between D. Afonso VI of Portugal and Carlos II of Spain, by mediation of Charles II of England. Ceuta is known officially in Spanish as Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta, the Autonomous City of Ceuta, having a rank between a standard Spanish city and an autonomous community. Before the Statute of Autonomy, Ceuta was administratively part of the Cádiz province.


It does not form part of the customs territory of the European Union. The city is a free port. As of 1994 its population was 71,926. The government of Morocco has calls for the integration of Ceuta and Melilla, into its national territory, drawing comparisons with Spain’s territorial claim to Gibraltar, but the Spanish government rejects these.

Property Spain

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Villa Costa Blanca

Villa Costa Blanca

This spanish property is on one floor built. The villa at the costa blanca has been renovatet in the year 2000. The previous owners of this spanish villa installed a new central heating system and a high quality kitchen. Even all bathrooms have been renovated. The floor of the terrace is made of white marble and the rest of the house is in red marble. Extras inlclude a chimeney, 30 fruit trees and much more.

For further information on this costa blanca villa Ref: C3340 visit spanish properties,
or contact immo2sell.

Alfonso XII

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Alfonso XII of Spain (November 28, 1857 - November 25, 1885), was king of Spain, reigning from 1875 to 1885, after a coup d’etat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. He was son of Isabella II of Spain. His biological paternity is uncertain. though his legal paternity is not: his mother was married to her homosexual cousin Maria Fernando Francisco de Assisi, eldest son of the duke of Cadiz, at the time of Alfonso’s conception and birth. Alfonso’s biological father is said to have been Enrique Puig y Moltó, a captain of the guard.

When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the revolution of 1868, Alfonso accompanied them to Paris, and from there he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies. On June 25, 1870 he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, in the presence of a number of Spanish nobles who had followed the fortunes of the exiled queen. He assumed the title of Alfonso XII; for although no king of united Spain had previously borne the name, the Spanish monarchy was regarded as continuous with the more ancient monarchy, represented by the eleven kings of León and Castile already referred to (see Alfonso).

Shortly afterwards he proceeded to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in the UK, to continue his military studies, and while there he issued, on the December 1, 1874, in reply to a birthday greeting from his followers, a manifesto proclaiming himself the sole representative of the Spanish monarchy. At the end of the year, when Marshal Serrano left Madrid to take command of the northern army, General Martinez Campos, who had long been working more or less openly for the king, carried off some battalions of the central army to Sagunto, rallied to his own flag the troops sent against him, and entered Valencia in the king’s name.

Thereupon the president of the council resigned, and the power was transferred to the king’s plenipotentiary and adviser, Canovas del Castillo. In the course of a few days the king arrived at Madrid, passing through Barcelona and Valencia, and was received everywhere with acclamation (1875). In 1876 a vigorous campaign against the Carlists, in which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos and his abandonment of the struggle. On January 23, 1878 Alphonso married his cousin, Princess Maria de las Mercedes, daughter of the duc de Montpensier, but she died within six months of her marriage. Towards the end of the same year a young workman of Tarragona, Oliva Marcousi, fired at the king in Madrid.

On November 29, 1879 he married a princess of Austria, Maria Christina, daughter of the Archduke Charles Ferdinand. During the honeymoon a pastrycook named Otero fired at the young sovereigns as they were driving in Madrid. The children of this marriage were Maria de las Mercedes, (September 11, 1880 - October 17, 1904), married on February 14, 1901 to Prince Carlos of Bourbon, and titular queen from the death of her father until the posthumous birth of her brother; Maria Teresa, (November 12, 1882 - September 23, 1912), married to Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria on January 12, 1906; and Alfonso.

In 1881 the king refused to sanction the law by which the ministers were to remain in office for a fixed term of eighteen months, and upon the consequent resignation of Canovas del Castillo, he summoned Sagasta, the Liberal leader, to form a cabinet. Alfonso died of phthisis.

Costa Blanca Property

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Villa Costa Blanca

Villa Costa Blanca

This costa blanca villa is an extraodinary property with a beautiful view to the sea and the mountains. The Villa at the Costa Blanca comes with extras like security windows, marble floors, and a cinema with big TV and music equipement.

For further information on this costa blanca villa Ref: C3290 visit spanish properties,
or contact immo2sell.

Pyrenees

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The Pyrenees in Spanish Pirineos, or French Pyrénées, and Catalan Pirineus, are a range of mountains in south-west Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. They separate the Iberian Peninsula from France, and extend for about 430km from the Bay of Biscay to Cap de Creus, or, if only the main crest of the range be considered, to Cape Cerbère, on the Mediterranean Sea.

For the most part the main crest constitutes the Franco-Spanish frontier, with the principality of Andorra sandwiched between them; the principal exception to this rule is formed by the Val d’Aran, which belongs orographically to the north face but politically to Spain. Also there are the minor orographical anomalies of the Cerdanya fall, and the Spanish exclave of the town Llívia.

Property Calpe

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Calpe Villa

Calpe Villa

This spanish property has an incredible view over Calpe and the costa blanca, a lovely summer kitchen, total privacy and a high quality construction. At the groundfloor is a 100sqm big room which could be built up easy to a separate guestapartment.

For further information on this Altea villa Ref: C3240 visit spanish villa,
or contact immo2sell.

Don Manuel Ruiz Zorilla

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Born at Burgo de Osma in 1834. He was educated at Valladolid, and studied law at Madrid University, where he leaned towards Radicalism in politics. In 1856 he was elected deputy, and soon attracted notice among the most advanced Progressists and Democrats. He took part in the revolutionary propaganda that led to the military movement in Madrid on June 22, 1866. He had to take refuge in France for two years, like his fellow-conspirators, and only returned to Spain when the revolution of 1868 took place.

He was one of the members of the first cabinet after the revolution, and in 1869, under the regency of Marshal Serrano, he became minister of grace and justice. In 1870 he was elected president of the House of Deputies, and seconded Prim in offering the throne to Amadeus of Savoy. He went to Italy as president of the commission, carrying to the prince at Florence the official news of his election. On the arrival of Amadeus in Spain, Ruiz Zorilla became minister of public works for a short time before resigning in protest against Serrano and Topete entering the councils of the new king. Six months later, in 1871, he was invited by Amadeus to form a cabinet, and he continued to be the principal councillor of the king until February 1873, when the monarch abdicated.

After the departure of Amadeus, Ruiz Zorilla advocated the establishment of a republic. Notwithstanding this, he was not called upon either by the Federal Republicans to help them during the year 1873, or by Marshal Serrano during 1874 to join Martos and Sagasta in his cabinet. Immediately after the restoration of Alphonso XII, early in 1875, Ruiz Zorilla went to France. He was for nearly eighteen years the soul of the republican conspiracies, the prompter of revolutionary propaganda, the chief inspirer of intrigues concerted by discontented military men of all ranks.

He gave so much trouble to the Madrid governments that they organized a watch over him with the assistance of the French government and police, especially when it was discovered that the two military movements of August 1883 and September 1886 had been prepared and assisted by him. During the last two years of his life Ruiz Zorilla became less active; failing health and the loss of his wife had decreased his energies, and the Madrid government allowed him to return to Spain some months before he died at Burgos, of heart disease.

Villa Costablanca

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Villa Altea

Villa Altea

This lovely spanish property is located in the outskirts of “Galera de las Palmeras” in Altea and convinces not only because of its location on the Costa Blanca and the very nice seaview. The detached villa in Altea consists of three individual apartements that could be easily rented out or joined together to one big spanish villa.

For further information on this Altea villa Ref: C2450 visit spanish villa,
or contact immo2sell.

Asturias

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The Principality of Asturias (Asturian: Asturies) is a province and an autonomous community of Spain on the north coast facing the Bay of Biscay (Spanish: Golfo de Vizcaya). The capital is Oviedo; Asturias was formerly called the province of Oviedo. Other noteworthy cities are the major seaport Gijón and the industrial city of Avilés. Other cities include Cangas de Onís, Cangas del Narcea, Grado, Langreo, Mieres, Villaviciosa. See also List of municipalities in Asturias.

The autonomous community is bordered on the east by Cantabria, on the south by Castile-Leon (Castilla-León) (province of León), on the west by Galicia (province of Lugo), and on the north by the Bay of Biscay. At one point, Asturias was one of the last remnants of Christian Spain; for this reason, the heir to the Spanish throne automatically takes the title of Prince of Asturias, much as the heir to the British throne is the Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay. Asturias shares the Parque Nacional Picos de Europa (in the Picos de Europa mountain range) with Cantabria and with León province.

Spain Property

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Villa Altea

Villa Altea

This luxury villa in Altea is a dream come true, with a high building quality, only two kilometers from the Costa Blanca, and gorgeous mountain view is this villa indeed a special property in spain.
Extras include a pool, safe surrounding, an alarmsystem, automatic irrigationsystem and much much more.

For further information on this Altea Villas Ref: C3110 visit spanish property,
or contact immo2sell.

Alfonso XIII

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Alfonso XIII of Spain (May 17, 1886 - February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. He reigned from 1886-1931. His mother, Queen Maria Christina, was appointed regent during his minority. In 1902, on attaining his 16th year, the King assumed control of the government.

On May 31, 1906 he married Scottish-born Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg (1887-1969), a niece of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. A Serene Highness by birth, Ena, as she was known, was raised to Royal Highness status a month before her wedding to prevent the union from being viewed as unequal, or morganatic. As Alfonso XIII and Queen Ena were returning from the wedding they narrowly escaped assassination in a bomb explosion, which killed and injured many bystanders and members of the royal procession.

The royal couple had seven children: Alfonso Pio Cristino Eduardo (1907-1938, a hemophiliac, he renounced his rights to the throne in 1936 to marry a commoner and became Count of Covadonga); Jaime Luitpold Isabelino Enrique (1908-1975, a deaf-mute as the result of a childhood operation, he renounced his rights to the throne in 1933 and became Duke of Segovia, and later Duke of Madrid, and who, as a legitimist pretender to the French throne from 1941 to 1975, was known as the Duke of Anjou); Beatrice Isabel Federica Alfonsa Eugenia (1909-2002); a stillborn son (1910); Maria Christina Teresa Alejandra (1911-1996); Juan Carlos Teresa Silvestre Alfonso (1913-93, named heir to the throne and Count of Barcelona), and Gonzalo Manuel Maria Bernardo (1914-34, a hemophiliac).

The king also had three illegitimate children, Roger Leveque de Vilmorin (1905-1980), by French aristocrat Mélanie de Gaufridy de Dortan; Leandro Alfonso Ruiz Moragas (born in 1929), officially recognized by Spanish courts on May 21, 2003 as Leandro Alfonso de Borbón Ruiz, son of the King; and his sister Ana María Teresa Ruiz Moragas. The mother of both siblings was the Spanish actress Carmen Ruiz Moragas.

During his reign Spain lost its last colonies in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines, lost several wars in north Africa, and endured the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera. When the 2nd Spanish republic was proclaimed in 1931, he abandoned the country with no formal abdication. He died in exile in Rome, after leaving his successory rights to his fourth, but second surviving, son Juan de Borbon, Count of Barcelona, the father of the later King Juan Carlos. The count of Barcelona renounced his rights to the throne in 1977, in favor of his son, Juan Carlos.

Property Spain

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Villa Costablanca

Villa Costablanca

This spanish property is in first sealine at the Costa Blanca and has via stairs a direct access to the sea . Nowadays those kind of properties at the Costa Blanca with this location extremely rare to find. The spanish villa has a property surface of 1345 m² and a construction surface of 290 m².

For further information on this Calpe Villa Ref: C2360 visit spain property,
or contact immo2sell.

Melilla

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Melilla, known in Arabic as Melilia is a Spanish autonomous city on the coast of eastern Morocco, in North Africa. It is a free port, and the principal industry is fishing. Cross-border commerce (legal or smuggled) and Spanish and European grants and wages are the other income sources.

Melilla was the frontier of the kingdom of Tremecén and the Kingdom of Fez, when Spain conquered the city in 1497. Since the foundation of Morocco in 1640, it has issued claims to the city. The Moroccan government claims Ceuta, Melilla and some small Spanish islands by the African shore (Plazas de Soberanía). As of 1994 the population was 63,670.

Property Calpe

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Villa in Calpe

Villa in Calpe

This luxury villa in Calpe is only 600 meters from the beach and 2 km from the center of Calpe away. The property in spain has a fantastic view at the mediterranean sea and the Peñón de Ifach. This villa in Calpe contains 4 bed rooms, 3 bath rooms and
living and dining room with fire-place. The property in Calpe has central-heating, air-condition, whirlpool, swimmingpool, covered and uncovered terrasses, gardens, garage, a waterdeposit with 15.000 l, plus a 10-years garantie over the construction

For further information on this Calpe Villa Ref: C2330 visit spain property,
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Spanish American War

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For many centuries Spain’s position as a world power had been slipping away. By the late nineteenth century the nation was left only a few scattered possessions in the Pacific, Africa, and the West Indies. Much of the empire had gained its independence and a number of the areas still under Spanish control were clamoring to do so. Guerrilla forces were operating in the Philippines, and had, for decades, been present in Cuba.

The Spanish government did not have the financial or the manpower resources to deal with these revolts and thus turned to expedients of building camps to separate the rebels from their rural base of support. The Spaniards also carried out many executions of suspected rebels and harshly treated villages and individuals thought to be supporting them. By the end of the 1890s the rebels had mostly been defeated and Cuba was returning to a relative peace. In the long run, however, Spain’s position was completely untenable.

These events in Cuba coincided in the 1890s with a struggle for readership between the American newspaper chains of Hearst and Pulitzer. One of the most popular features were tales of great atrocities (some based on fact, some not) which the ‘cruel Spanish masters’ were inflicting on the ‘hapless native Cubans’ (see: Black Legend). Cuban. Sections of the American people began pushing for intervention.

There were other pressures pushing towards war. The US navy had recently grown considerably, but it was still untested. The Navy had drawn up plans for attacking the Spanish in the Philippines over a year before hostilities broke out. The end of western expansion and of large-scale conflict with the First Nations also left the army with little to do, and army leadership hoped that some new task would come. From an early date many in the US had felt that Cuba was rightly theirs. The theory of manifest destiny made the island just off the coast of Florida seem very attractive. Much of the island’s economy was already in American hands, and most of its trade, much of which was black market, was with the US.

Some business leaders pushed for conflict as well. In the words of Senator Thurston of Nebraska: “War with Spain would increase the business and earnings of every American railroad, it would increase the output of every American factory, it would stimulate every branch of industry and domestic commerce.” In Spain the government was not entirely averse to war. The US was an unproven power. The Spanish navy, however decrepit, had a glorious history and it was thought it could be a match for the US. There was also a widely held notion among Spain’s aristocratic leaders that the United States’ ethnically mixed army and navy could never survive under severe pressure.

Villa Costa Blanca

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Costa Blanca Property

Costa Blanca Propterty

This beautifull spanish villa is located in the romantic town of Altea. The villa in spain has a view to the sea and into the mountains. With a distance of under two kilometers to the Costa Blanca beach it is only a quick drive. The altea villa has a pool, garage, terrace (3) and much much more.

For further information on this spanish villa Ref: C2220 visit spanish property,
or contact immo2sell.

Saragossa

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Saragossa, named during roman times Caesar Augusta, and in Spanish: Zaragoza is the capital city of Aragon, Spain, and located by the Ebre river. Saragossa is also the capital of the province of Zaragoza. It was founded by the Romans. It is linked by legends to the beginnings of Christianity in Spain.

According to legend, Virgin Mary appeared miraculously to Saint James The Greater in the 1st century. This fact is commemorated by a famous Catholic basilica called El Pilar ("The Pillar [upon which Mary appeared]"). This is celebrated on 12 October which is a holiday for Zaragoza, Spain. Since it coincided in 1492 with the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, that day is also celebrated for Hispanics worldwide.

Zaragoza was the scene of two famous martyrdoms: those of Saint Dominguito del Val, a choirboy in the basilica, and Pedro de Arbués, an official of the Spanish Inquisition. Zaragoza was the see of a Moorish taifa in the Middle Ages. It suffered combats during the Peninsula War (See Agustina de Aragón). It contains an important military officer academy, and formerly a USAF airbase.

Designer Villa Costa Blanca

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Property Spain

Property Spain

This extravagant Luxury-Designer-Villa in Altea is a mansion that has to be seen. This villa in spain is not only because of the architecture extraordinary but also because of the size and location, you just must have seen this villa in Altea. Extras include Alarm, pool with separate jacuzzi, musicroom, designerkitchen and much more.

For further information on this Luxury Villa Ref: C2100 visit spain property,
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Isabella II

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Isabella II (1830-1904), queen of Spain, was born in Madrid on October 10 1830. She was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king of Spain, and of his fourth wife, Maria Christina, a Neapolitan Bourbon. Maria became queen-regent on September 29, 1833, when her daughter Isabella, at the age of three years, was proclaimed queen on the death of the king.

Queen Isabella succeeded to the throne because Ferdinand VII induced the Cortes to assist him in setting aside the Salic law, which the Bourbons had introduced in the beginning of the 18th century, and to re-establish the older succession law of Spain. The brother of Ferdinand, Don Carlos, the first pretender, fought seven years, during the minority of Isabella, to dispute her title. Supporters of Don Carlos and his descendants were known as Carlists and the dispute over the succession was the subject of a number of Carlist Wars in the 19th century.

Isabella’s rights were only maintained through the support of the army, the Cortes and the Liberals and Progressists, who at the same time established constitutional and parliamentary government, dissolved the religious orders, confiscated the property of the orders including the Jesuits, and attempted to restore order in finances. After the Carlist war the queen-regent, Christina, resigned to make way for Espartero, the most successful and most popular general of the Isabelline armies, who only remained regent two years.

He was turned out in 1843 by a military and political pronunciamiento, led by Generals O’Donnell and Narvaez, who formed a cabinet, presided over by Joaquin Maria Lopez, and this government induced the Cortes to declare Isabella of age at thirteen. Three years later the Moderado party or Castilian Conservatives made their queen marry, at sixteen, her cousin, Prince Maria Fernando Francisco de Asis de Bourbon (1822-1902), on the same day (October 10, 1846) her younger sister married the duke of Montpensier.

These marriages suited the views of France and Louis Philippe, who nearly quarrelled in consequence with Great Britain; but both matches were anything but happy. In fact, persistent rumor had it that few if any of the Spanish queen’s children were conceived by her king-consort, a homosexual. The heir to the throne, who would eventually become Alfonso XII, for instance, was widely believed to be Isabella’s child by a captain of the guard, Enrique Puig y Moltó.

Queen Isabella reigned from 1843 to 1868, and that period was one long succession of palace intrigues, back-stairs and antechamber influences, barrack conspiracies, military pronunciamientos to further the ends of the political parties–Moderados who ruled from 1846 to 1854, Progressists from 1854 to 1856 Únion Liberal from 1856 to 1863; Moderados and Únion Liberals quickly succeeding each other and keeping out the Progressists so steadily that the seeds were sown which budded into the revolution of 1868.

Queen Isabella II often interfered in politics in a wayward, unscrupulous manner that made her very unpopular. She showed most favour to her reactionary generals and statesmen, to the Church and religious orders, and was constantly the tool of corrupt and profligate courtiers and favourites who gave her court a bad name. She went into exile at the end of September 1868, after her Moderado generals had made a slight show of resistance that was crushed a the battle of Alcolea by Marshals Serrano and Prim. Other events of Queen Isabella’s reign were a war against Morocco, which ended in an advantageous treaty for Spain and some Morroccan cession of territory; some progress in public works, especially railways and a slight improvement in commerce and finance.

Isabella was induced to abdicate in Paris on June 25, 1870 in favour of her son, Alfonso XII, and the cause of the restoration was thus much furthered. She had separated from her husband in the previous March. She continued to live in France after the restoration in 1874. On the occasion of one of her visits to Madrid during Alfonso XII’s reign she began to intrigue with the politicians of the capital, and was peremptorily requested to go abroad again. She died on April 10 1904.

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Villa Altea

Villa Altea

This spanish villa in Altea in one of the best areas has not only this lovely costa blanca seaview and the perfect location. The character of that spanish property is the combination of location, view and the very quality construction with only the very best materials like toscastones.

For further information on this Moraira Villa Ref: C0204 visit spanish property,
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Alhambra

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The situation of the Alhambra is one of rare natural beauty; the plateau commands a wide view of the city and plain of Granada, towards the west and north, and of the heights of the Sierra Nevada, towards the east and south. Moorish poets described it as “a pearl set in emeralds,” in allusion to the brilliant colour of its buildings, and the luxuriant woods round them.

The park (Alameda de la Alhambra), which in spring is overgrown with wild-flowers and grass, was planted by the Moors with roses, oranges and myrtles; its most characteristic feature, however, is the dense wood of English elms brought hither in 1812 by the Duke of Wellington. The park is celebrated for the multitude of its nightingales, and is usually filled with the sound of running water from several fountains and cascades. These are supplied through a conduit 5 m. long, which is connected with the Darro at the monastery of Jesus del Valle, above Granada.

In spite of the long neglect, wilful vandalism and ill-judged restoration which the Alhambra has endured, it remains the most perfect example of Moorish art in its final European development, freed from the direct Byzantine influences which can be traced in the cathedral of Cordova, more elaborate and fantastic than the Giralda at Seville. The majority of the palace buildings are, in ground-plan, quadrangular, with all the rooms opening on to a central court; and the whole reached its present size simply by the gradual addition of new quadrangles, designed on the same principle, though varying in dimensions, and connected with each other by smaller rooms and passages. In every case the exterior is left plain and austere, as if the architect intended thus to heighten by contrast the splendour of the interior.

Within, the palace is unsurpassed for the exquisite detail of its marble pillars and arches, its fretted ceilings and the veil-like transparency of its filigree work in stucco. Sun and wind are freely admitted, and the whole effect is one of the most airy lightness and grace. Blue, red, and a golden yellow, all somewhat faded through lapse of time and exposure, are the colours chiefly employed.

The decoration consists, as a rule, of stiff, conventional foliage, Arabic inscriptions, and geometrical patterns wrought into arabesques of almost incredible intricacy and ingenuity. Painted tiles are largely used as panelling for the walls.

Property Costablanca

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Spain Real Estate

Spain Real Estate

This exlusive luxury villa in Moraira has been created by an artist which completed this jevel by combining location, quality, esthetics and harmony. This spanish villa has such special feature as heated inside-pool with jetstream system, sauna area with shower, underfloor heating and a cellar.

For further information on this Moraira Villa Ref: C0204 visit spanish property,
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Carlist Wars

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The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. Several times during the period from 1833 to 1876 the Carlists – followers of Don Carlos and his descendants - rallied to the cry of “God, Country, and King” and fought for the cause of Spanish tradition against the liberalism, and later the republicanism, of the Spanish governments of the day.

When Ferdinand VII of Spain died in 1833, his fourth wife Maria Cristina became Queen regent on behalf of their infant daughter Isabella II. This splintered the country into two factions known as the Cristinos (or Isabelinos) and the Carlists. The Cristinos were the supporters of the Queen Regent and her government. The Carlists were the supporters of Carlos, a pretender to the throne and brother of the deceased Ferdinand VII. The First Carlist War lasted over 7 years and the fighting spanned most of the country at one time or another, although the main conflict centered around the Carlist homelands of the Basque Country and Aragon.

Queen Isabella II was overthrown by a conspiracy of liberal Generals, and left Spain in some disgrace. The generals replaced her with a Amadeo, the Duke of Aosta (and second son of King Victor Emmanuel of Italy), Then when the Spanish elections of 1872 resulted in a swing away from the Carlists, the Carlist pretender, Carlos VII, decided that only force of arms can win him the throne.

Calpe Property

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Villa in Calpe

Villa in Calpe

This massive, lovely villa in Calpe has certain parts of a Finca. It is just a dream to visit and see this spanish property with the wide seaview on the Costa Blanca, architecture with toscan stones and its big garden. Defenitely one of the best spanish properties we ever have to sell!

For further information on this Calpe villa Ref: C0198 visit Calpe property,
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Val d’Aran

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Val d’Aran (official name in Gascon) is a small valley (620.47 km2) in Spain. It is the comarca located on the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia, on the North face of the Pyrenees. It borders on the North with France, with Aragón on the west and with the Catalan comarques of Alta Ribagorça to the south and Pallars Sobirà to the east. The capital of the comarca is Vielha, with 3,692 inhabitants (1996). The entire population of the valley is about 7,130 (1996).

The region is characterized by an Atlantic climate, due to its peculiar orientation, which is different from other valleys in the zone. Inhabitants speak a dialect of Gascon called Aranès, strongly influenced by Spanish and Catalan, and with its own orthography. It has been regularly taught at school since 1984. The local Aranese speakers are also fluent in Spanish, Catalan and French. As with other minority languages in Europe, Aranese is probably experiencing a renaissance, as, up until comparatively recently, minority languages were on the decline in most areas, typically spoken only by the older members of a given society.

The area is divided in six administrative divisions, called terçons (meaning “thirds", as the divisions were formerly three in number). The current arrangement of the divisions dates from the 15th century. The main income is from ski resorts in the winter, and from tourism in the summer. Other primary sectors of the economy include forest products, cattle raising and apiculture, all of which have become less and less important since the opening of ski resorts.

The valley used to be without direct communication with the south side of the mountains during winter, until the construction of a tunnel, opened in 1948. Spanish Republican guerrillas controlled the area from the end of WWII until the opening of the tunnel. The name itself is a tautology, as it means Valley of the Valley (val in Gascon and aran from Basque haran )

Property Costa Blanca

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Villa Costa Blanca

Villa Costa Blanca

This big and very well constructed detached Villa in spain is located in a quiet but central area with a beautiful seaview. The Luxury Villa in Lu Nucia has four bed rooms, three bath rooms, three terraces a pool and much more.

For further information on this costablanca villa Ref:C0197 visit La Nucia property,
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Ferdinand VII

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The eldest son of Charles IV, king of Spain, and of his wife Maria Louisa of Parma, he was born at the palace of San Ildefonso near Balsam in the Somosierra hills. The events with which he was connected were many, tragic and of the widest European interest. In his youth he occupied the painful position of an heir apparent who was carefully excluded from all share in government by the jealousy of his parents, and the prevalence of a royal favourite, Manuel de Godoy. National discontent with a feeble government produced a revolution in 1805 by which he passed to the throne by the forced abdication of his father.

Then he spent almost seven years at Chateau Valençay in the town of Valençay, France as the prisoner of Napoleon, and returned in 1814 to find that while Spain was fighting for independence in his name a new world had been born of foreign invasion and domestic revolution. He came back to assert the ancient doctrine that the sovereign authority resided in his person only. Acting on this principle he ruled frivolously, and with a wanton indulgence of whims.

In 1820 his misrule provoked a revolt, and he remained in the hands of insurgents till he was released by foreign intervention in 1823. When free, he revenged himself with a ferocity which disgusted his allies. In his last years he prepared a change in the order of succession established by his dynasty in Spain, which angered a large part of the nation, and made a civil war inevitable. We have to distinguish the part of Ferdinand VII in all these transactions, in which other and better men were concerned. It can confidently be said to have been uniformly base. He had perhaps no right to complain that he was kept aloof from all share in government while only heir apparent, for this was the traditional practice of his family.

But as heir to the throne he had a right to resent the degradation of the crown he was to inherit, and the power of a favourite who was his mother’s lover. If he had put himself at the head of a popular rising he would have been followed, and would have had a good excuse. His course was to enter on dim intrigues at the instigation of his first wife, Maria Antonietta of Naples. After her death in 1806 he was drawn into other intrigues by flatterers, and, in October 1807, was arrested for the conspiracy of the Escorial. The conspiracy aimed at securing the help of the emperor Napoleon. When detected, Ferdinand betrayed his associates, and grovelled to his parents.

When his father’s abdication was extorted by a popular riot at Aranjuez in March 1808, he ascended the throne - not to lead his people manfully, but to throw himself into the hands of Napoleon, in the fatuous hope that the emperor would support him. He was in his turn forced to make an abdication and imprisoned in France, while Spain, with the help of England, fought for its life. At Valancay, where he was sent as a prisoner of state, he sank contentedly into vulgar vice, and did not scruple to applaud the French victories over the people who were suffering unutterable misery in his cause.

Costa Blanca Property

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Villa Costa Blanca

Villa Costa Blanca

This luxury villa in the making is still under construction. Once it is completed it will have a barbeque area, an internal patio of 20sqm, an office- and a utility room and much much more.

For further information and detailed plans on this spanish property Ref:C3930 visit property spain, or contact immo2sell

Tourism in Spain

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Spain is the second largest tourism destination in the World after France. Spain welcomes about 52 million tourists per year. Tourism in Spain includes the two largest cities of Madrid and Barcelona. Very interesting places are Cordoba, Sevilla, Granada (cultural places) and Malaga, Huelva, Cadiz, Almeria (beaches) in Andalusia. Santiago, Salamanca, Toledo, Segovia are beautiful places in the rest of the country.

Important touristics places (with beautiful beaches) are Salou, Benidorm, Mallorca, Ibiza (Balearic islands), Canary Islands, Valencia, Catalonia and The Cantabrico (north of Spain). Spain’s national airline is Iberia (or Iberia Airlines), but the country can also be flown into on many international passenger and charter airlines, both of which fly to many tourist spots in the region. There are good trains, for example AVE (spanish high velocity) or Talgo. There are good freeways to the most important cities.

Altea Real Estate

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Property Altea

Property Altea

A luxury villa at the Costa Blanca with an incredibble sea and mountainview. This villa in spain is situated in on of the best areas of Altea. In the inside of the luxury villa is a lovely fishpond. Also included in this dream of a villa is an alarm-system and high quality furniture,

For further information on the Altea property Ref:C0192 visit property spain, or contact immo2sell

Ferdinand VI

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Ferdinand VI, (September 23, 1713 - August 10, 1759), king of Spain from 1746 until his death, second son of Philip V, founder of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty (as opposed to the French Bourbons), by his first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy, was born at Madrid on September 23 1713.

His youth was depressed. His father’s second wife, Elizabeth Farnese, was a managing woman, who had no affection except for her own children, and who looked upon her stepson as an obstacle to their fortunes. The hypochondria of his father left Elizabeth mistress of the palace. Ferdinand was married in 1729 to Maria Magdalena Barbara, daughter of John V of Portugal. The very homely looks of his wife were thought by observers to cause the prince a visible shock when he was first presented to her. Yet he became deeply attached to his wife, and proved in fact nearly as uxorious as his father.

Ferdinand was by temperament melancholy, shy and distrustful of his own abilities. When complimented on his shooting, he replied, “It would be hard if there were not something I could do.” As king he followed a steady policy of neutrality between France and England, and refused to be tempted by the offers of either into declaring war on the other. In his life he was orderly and retiring, averse from taking decisions, though not incapable of acting firmly, as when he cut short the dangerous intrigues of his able minister Ensenada by dismissing and imprisoning him.

Shooting and music were his only pleasures, and he was the generous patron of the famous singer Farinelli, whose voice soothed his melancholy. The death of his wife Barbara, who had been devoted to him, and who carefully abstained from political intrigue, broke his heart. Between the date of her death in 1758 and his own on August 10 1759 he fell into a state of prostration in which he would not even dress, but wandered unshaven, unwashed and in a nightgown about his park. The memoirs of the count of Fernan Nuñez give a shocking picture of his death-bed.

A good account of the reign and character of Ferdinand VI will be found in vol. iv. of Coxe’s Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of the House of Bourbon (London, i8f 5). See also Vida de Carlos III, by the count of Fernan Nuñez, ed. Pd. Morel Fatio and Don A Paz y Melia (1898).